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Chinese groundwater (in)

From;  Author:Stand originally
Groundwater of karst distributinging area namely water of karst cranny cave, can divide again for bare reach half bare model and insidious model 2 kinds: Bare reach half bare model karst (karst) cranny cave water can divide again for the following 3 sort: Water of Dong of dissolve of cranny of peak forest of ① peak cluster. Distributing more in two An Jiyun is expensive. Like Guangxi by in Devonian comes total ply amounts to next Triassic carbonate terrane more than meters 8000, area giving dew occupies the 40 % of whole area gross area, the cave growth that Guilin area has 80 % at going up in the grey cliff of county of be in harmony of Devonian, have without hill not of the hole say. Guizhou comes by next the Palaeozoic Era the terrane total ply of Mesozoic Era is close 10 thousand meters, area giving dew occupies the 70 % that visit an area completely about. In addition, subterranean underground river is extensive development, only one area discharge is more than Guangxi 100 stere / the subterranean river when has more than 100 namely, low water total flow is 360 thousand stere about / when, if install area underground river systems to be as long as 50 more than kilometer, supply area kilometer of 1000 much square, the largest flow is pluvial period 1.4 million stere / when, the least flow is dry season 14 thousand stere / when. Guizhou alone the river systems below Shannabude grows 40 kilometers, supply area is close 350 square kilometer, discharge of exit low water is 4320 stere / when. In addition, in the Xisha Islands of Chinese Nanhai, development of coral grey cliff is extensive, thick amount to many meters 900, drilling unit emerges water measures 24 stere / when · rice, but mineralization is spent be as high as 30 grams / litre. ② karst is upland cave cranny water. Basically distributing downstream in the Yangtse River, like Sichuan the eastpart part and southern carbonate terrane total ply amounts to kilometre left and right sides, karst phenomenon ten cent development, cave is big person can amount to 30 meters high. Grow in the south there is discharge of one underground underground river to amount to 4212 stere in the cliff that promote ash / when, fontal discharge most greatly 432 stere / when, but the different discharge change that follows season is very big, if the ferry austral Hubei closes the white horse in grey cliff,discharge of hole spring flood season is 228 stere / when, dry season decreases for 0.072 stere / when; Development is in the carp pool in grey cliff of Shi Long Dong, the largest flow is flood season 1404 stere / when, dry season is only 10.8 stere / when, six to one. Water of cave of cranny of ③ karst country. Basically distributing at the Huanghe valley, northeastern with northwest Yi Ling star is seen. Upper karst phenomenon is very not outstanding, with large karst spring group give dew to be its main feature. But because supply division range is wide, spring flow is large and stable, be like too the Guan Quanqun of a form of address for one's wife of travel hill middle, fontal region area amounts to 4480 square kilometer, discharge is 9 ~ 16 stere / second; Shanxi makes the same score spring of head of new moon god, fontal region area 2910 square kilometer, discharge is 7 ~ 9 stere / second; Spring of hole of black dragon of Heibei summit summit, fontal region area 2140 square kilometer, discharge amounts to 6 ~ 9 stere / second; There is more than 100 to be in spring to give dew near Shandong Jinan, total flow is 14 thousand stere / when. Insidious model karst (karst) cranny cave water can divide again for the following 2 sort: ① is shallow bury model water of cave of insidious karst cranny. Distributing more at Chinese south and area of the eastpart part, the wide beautiful basin that is like Guangdong and Hubei river Chinese Campagna, drilling unit emerges water quantity is 0.36 ~ 28.1 stere / when · rice. The Communist Party of China of basin of Shandong Zi rich has 3 insidious carbonate terrane, among them the 1st cranny karst with the 3rd water is relatively rich, drilling unit emerges water quantity is 72 stere / when · rice, belong to calcium sulfate water. North of north of this explicit another name for Guangdong Province, Jiangxi, Hunan, Hubei, the Huaihe River and too the and other places before travel hill hill all also has distributing, water volume is average richer. ② is buried greatly model water of cave of insidious karst cranny. Basically distributing the bottom that is in Sichuan basin and North China Plain. In Sichuan basin gigantic thick red rock formation issues insidious high-rise 2 fold, cliff of the 3 lime that fold a department bear press aquifer, it is the brine that tall mineralization spends and bittern water more, single well gives water quantity to be able to amount to 122 stere / when. North China Plain fastens the Yi Yun in grey cliff to store water of richer karst cranny cave in the cold fierce that buries greatly, Ao Tao. Belong to base cliff is a mountainous area the in having the terrane such as magma cliff, degenerative cliff, clastic rock, basalt groundwater of groundwater, main and hydrous type is base cliff cranny water, there is small opening in local clastic rock only - cranny water. The cliff of cranny water magma that magma cliff gives priority to kind shallow ministry often contains efflorescent cranny to dive. Size of north of much distributinging Yu Dong promotes An Ling and area of long white mountain, for Hualixi period granite and lava kind, water quality is good, dan Quan discharge is lesser. Coastal in the southeast of China far-flung reachs granite of Yan Shan period for Jurassic lava, spring falls below more the spring goes dew along faint efflorescent belt, discharge 0.9 stere of 0.3 ~ / when, short for Zhejiang Province east lava area spring is more, discharge is 0.1 ~ 3.6 stere / when; Another name for Guangdong Province east cranny development, efflorescent layer is thicker, spring discharge is 1 ~ 3 stere / when, in local construction broken belt can amount to 30 stere left and right sides. Hill of day of main distributinging northwest, Kunlun hill, Qi Lianshan reachs the cranny water that degenerative cliff gives priority to Qin Ling is a mountainous area reach the degenerative cliff with coastal southeast to take, groundwater constant bury is taken at tectonic cranny in. Northwest country spring goes dew more, it is 5 ~ commonly in day hill discharge 30 stere / when. Fujian north, Fujian reachs cliff of metamorphism of Jiangxi and other places on the west kind hydrous and faint, spring discharge is less than 3 stere more / when. When the clip in be like degenerative cliff has Dali rock, often have water of the cranny between the layer, like the Long Quan of Anhui Hefei discharge amounts to 2.7 stere / when, water quality is good, all be the bicarbonate of low mineralization fresh water. The cranny water that clastic rock gives priority to distributings more at northwest a few a mountainous area, inner Mongolia highland and Tibet east, plain on the west and other places. Er of the A Er Mount Taishan in Xinjiang, accurate Ga western country all distributings the clastic rock that has different and geological period kind, spring discharge 5 ~ 30 stere / when, water quality is good. The region before hill of the foot of mountain of day hill north basically is bear press water, local do as one pleases, bore emerges water quantity is more than 10 stere / when, mineralization spends along with deepness heighten, qi Lianshan and hilly area of mountain of the Qin Dynasty basically are mudstone, shaly, sandstone and layer of grit cliff each other, rich water is medium, below construction and landforms condition control, form basin of the do as one pleases between a lot of small hill, spring discharge is 5 ~ 30 stere / when, if give dew to be taken at rupturing,can amount to 80 stere, water quality is good, mineralization is spent be less than 1 gram / litre. E Er is much this highland and North Shaanxi belong to medium, Neozoic tectonic basin, jurassic widespread, cretaceous pass an imperial examination 3 departments sandstone, water measures grit cliff aquifer richer, water quality is good, but to North Shaanxi highland western aquifer attenuates gradually, mineralization spends heighten, water qualitative change is poor. Hiding east, plain the medium, Neozoic arenaceous shale that wide cloth has light metamorphism in west hill ground and Sichuan basin, conglomerate, cranny of cliff of Yu Sha of much richer collect mixes groundwater in the cranny between the layer, in a mountainous area tectonic basin, constant in layer inattentive deposit is enclothed basin of do as one pleases is formed in the clastic rock below, water volume is average not quite. Shallow department of Sichuan drape region is general water of rich market take its natural course, head height does not exceed 20 meters commonly, do as one pleases measures 11 stere / when the left and right sides. In Taiwan central country reachs the upland area that its abut, in also having, Neozoic clastic rock distributings, general and hydrous rate is poorer, belong to the bicarbonate of weak mineralization water. The hole of whinstone area - cranny water China from evening the 3rd discipline erupts to the basalt with inchoate the Quaternary Period, peninsula of city of the eastpart part of main distributinging Yu Jilin, Inner Mongolia, thunder, another name for Yunnan Province reachs and other places of the Penghu Islands on the west. Basalt is forming process middling to accompany have growth good columnar joint and generation stoma are tectonic, the labor market that is groundwater provided good place. Basalt of Jilin the eastpart part goes out in be being shown at the river valley with low-lying relief, accept the provision of precipitation and surface water, rich water waits in belonging to. Mesa basalt enclothes Inner Mongolia lava to go up at laterite of the 3rd department or claypan of the 4th department directly, often form rich water section along ancient channel cereal. Basalt of thunder city peninsula and inattentive the ancient decency that arenaceous layer shows each other layer to be bottom is red person layer place is lain between, become the basin of do as one pleases that is alternated by basaltic place, among them shallow ministry is phreatic water, bottom is bear press water, water quality water is measured all beautiful. Surface layer of the Penghu Islands has basalt to distributing, bottom is layer of arenaceous, shaly each other, precipitation permeates supply to arrive in bottom terrane through efflorescent belt of basalt, have show water and not hydrous feature.

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