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Chinese groundwater (go up)

From;  Author:Stand originally
Chinese groundwater(Groundwater Of China) influence and the main factor that control Chinese groundwater to form are geology and all sorts of physical geography factors that have underlying concern with its. As a result of feature of China's unique physical geography qualification and geological construction, formed various places the groundwater of different type, suffer Kunlun especially, Qin Ling is giant the effect that broadwise construction takes, make Chinese groundwater distributings in area on not only north and south has differ apparently, there also is certain difference on thing direction. Groundwater type forms by its basically can divide for following 4 kinds: Water of the hole in inattentive deposit. River of Qin Ling, the Huaihe River distributings more with boreal area have large medium, Neozoic tectonic basin and Campagna, have gigantic large inattentive deposit, groundwater contain is rich, basin of Er of ground of the Campagna of Campagna of the distant that be like a pine, sea of yellow the Huaihe River, tub in the tower, accurate Ga, Chaidamu the basin and westing of basin of Fen short for Weihe River, Yinchuan basin, Nanyang basin, river, chinese south is the basin between small-sized hill and river valley Campagna more, inattentive deposit is thinner, hydrous and opposite poorer. In north western it is inland basin more, precipitation and all the year round snows melts assemble of in a steady stream in the layer of gigantic thick gravel at basin brim, spill over in groundwater belt form oasis, and basin center is far from fountainhead, precipitation little, enclothe for dune more. The eastpart part is Campagna area, freely of new old river course, deposit the 4th department of thick layer is inattentive and deposit, groundwater contain is rich. Mix in Campagna of afore-mentioned the eastpart part western the area of Yellow River middle reaches between inland basin, distributing have gigantic thick loess is deposit, form hole of China's distinctive loess plateau loess - cranny water. Carbonate cliff kind karst (karst) cranny cave water. Distributing just in north and south have apparent difference. Main development is unloading water of cave of northward karst cranny in the lime cliff of Paleozoic cold fierce, the Ordovician period, karst water with big spring or spring group release exceeds. Southern especially the cloud of Chinese southwest, expensive, plain, the province area such as another name for Guangdong Province, laurel, Hunan, another name for Hubei province, distributing more going up in the Palaeozoic Era and the layer of next Mesozoic Era, form a series of the cave with subterranean underground river and vast scope. Groundwater of square shallow-layer of north and south (include phreatic water and shallow department small bear press water) . Change of water quality of northward shallow-layer groundwater differs south. Groundwater mineralization spends north to often be more than 1 gram commonly / litre, northwest inland basin can be as high as a few grams sometimes / litre; And in Qin Ling with the vast area south, mineralization is spent be less than 1 gram more / litre. This is explicit and northward make the same score place area or large and inland basin no matter, by a mountainous area all have more apparent groundwater to hydrate to learn a level to distribute belt and perpendicular cent tape to Campagna, and in south in the basin between a few hill, this kind of cent takes phenomenal pole not apparent. Old aspic land enters the water. Except in Heilongjiang province north and Xinjiang the area has Aertaide a few permanent frozen earth and groundwater of seasonal frozen earth distributing outside, in Qinghai-Tibet Platean occurrence world the low latitudinal Gao Hai with medium, low latitudinal scarce region unplugs old aspic land enters the water. What according to various places property of hydrous terrane space, groundwater ode keeps condition and hydrous terrane structure is different, can differentiate groundwater for 4 kinds of types: Water of hole of ① inattentive deposit. ② karst (karst) cranny cave water. Water of cranny of ③ radical cliff. Hole of ④ old frozen earth - cranny water. Cloth feature can divide area underground moisture to distributing for inattentive deposit area groundwater, karst (karst) distributinging area groundwater, base cliff is a mountainous area groundwater and groundwater of area of old frozen earth 4 kinds big. The groundwater of distributinging area can divide inattentive deposit again for the following 4 kinds: Area of Campagna of the eastpart part. Include delta of Campagna of sea of loose distant Campagna, yellow the Huaihe River, the Yangtse River and Jiang Hanping to wait for an area formerly. Gravel stone piles up loose thick amount to hundreds meters of very consummate kilometre, the ode that is groundwater is put, use moves, created advantage. It is with Heibei Campagna exemple, by can divide commonly to seaside before hill for unit of geology of 3 flood article: ① too the foot of mountain austral travel Shandong the foot of mountain and Yan Shan, what by the 4th department gravel stone comprises is strong, big accumulate fan group very development, aquifer is thick amount to 40 ~ 60 meters, be phreatic water more or shallow department is small bear press water, drilling unit emerges water quantity is more than 30 stere generally / when · rice, can amount to 200 stere most / when · rice (namely horary water level drops 1 meter emerge water is measured) , water quality is good, belong to heavy calcium carbonate more (magnesian) model water, mineralization is spent all be less than 0.5 grams / litre, for wonderful water supply fountainhead. Big Campagna of ② mid alluviation, form by alluviation of ancient river course and recent river course more, aquifer basically is in fine arenaceous with pink fine arenaceous, monolayer ply is thinner, water amount is not large, but there often are 3 ~ in deep 4 grain are thicker bear press aquifer, the unit emerges water quantity is more than 10 stere commonly / when · rice, for the area inside fountainhead of main water supply. ③ seaside area, basically be the each other layer of strong, lake accumulating and sea facies deposit, by fine pink arenaceous and inferior argillaceous place is formed, aquifer is lenticular system condition more, water quantity is less than 1 stere generally / when · rice, mineralization is spent be more than 3 grams / litre, but in deep 100 ~ 200 meters the following, common have bear press fresh water. Other Campagna Yi Jun and this is similar, only groundwater of river Chinese Campagna contains iron ion generally taller, have by north Xiang Na is increased by degrees trend, highest and average content amounts to 10.8 milligram / litre. Delta of the Yangtse River shares 4 bear press aquifer, two groups fall on cent, there is one relatively stable clay to lie between water layer among, upside two bear press aquifer to be sea facies and sea land alternant photograph deposit, two aquifer all are bottom land facies deposit, water amount is larger, water quality is better. Campagna area tilts before northwest inland basin and hill. A few of northwest area large and inland basins, circumjacent and a mountainous area precipitation and all the year round water of firn be in harmony, pass undercurrent and seep supply basin. Campagna tilts before basin periphery wide cloth has mountain, its coping is deposit commonly gigantic thick desert gravel layer, subterranean water level is buried all be in 50 meters greatly the following, underground is slipped into namely after the river gives mountain, to strong, big the leading edge that accumulate fan spills over upper, form oasis. The predestined relationship austral general basin is inattentive deposit relatively development of boreal predestined relationship, if allow Ga Er basin to be before day hill the foot of a mountain, deposit has thick amount to 300 ~ layer of 500 meters stone of gravel of the 4th department, hydrous and rich, drilling unit emerges water quantity amounts to 30 stere / when · rice, water quality is good, mineralization is spent be less than 1 gram / litre, groundwater has clear standard to divide belt and perpendicular cent to bring a characteristic. Take oasis from the desert, groundwater by bury very deep go under water transfers for multilayer of the structure bear press water, the desert that reachs basin center again next is taken. Water is measured gradually by arrive greatly small, water quality by weak arrive salty, desert takes fresh water to see Yu He sheds two side only. River westing corridor forms even Shan Beilu in a surname gigantic thick Shan Qiansong comes loose deposit, because strong construction moves, make corridor Campagna is broken up north and south to two when exhibit cloth small basins, its total characteristic is the south the accumulation of pebble of each basin grit is upperer the basin is broad, ply is big, grain is thick, of groundwater qualitative with the quantity all good. Loess plateau area. Although place of loess plateau some is serious lack water, but in recent years investigation confirms the following area still has richer subterranean source of water: Alluvium of Campagna of ① river valley dives. Be like river of short for the Jinghe River, the river various places such as ancestor severe river, single well gives water quantity to be able to amount to 100 ~ 1000 stere / day, general bury is more shallow, facilitating exploitation. The groundwater of area of ② loess Yuan. Aquifer is more distributing continuously, be like the Dong Zhi Yuan to the south of 6 dishes of hill, the area is capacious and even, often have distributinging meantime of butterfly form valley, the assemble that is helpful for atmosphere precipitation infiltration supply groundwater. General Yuan area heals big, rich water level heals strong, the Gu Yu that be apart from channel is close, water level heals deep, phreatic water often falls below in the channel cereal that fontal form emits into Yuan edge, mineralization is spent be less than 1 gram more / litre. Depth of the bend over below ③ loess Yuan bear press water. Loess layer falls to basically be layer of a the Cretaceous age to the south of 6 dishes of hill, form basin of all along inclined do as one pleases, depth bear press water to distributing extensively, limits installs a gleam of of county of gentleman of a place of strategic importance, appropriate, Bin in North Shaanxi roughly with on the west. Bury of aquifer of the eastpart part is more shallow, general 100 ~ 200 meters, single well gives water quantity to be able to amount to 1000 stere / day above. Xiang Xishen is spent gradually big, take to annulus county, Qing Yang, be as deep as 700 ~ 850 meters, water qualitative change is salty, mineralization spends 5 grams of 3 ~ / litre. Roof of southern area aquifer is buried deep 300 ~ 500 meters, single well gives water quantity to be able to amount to 2000 ~ 10000 stere / day, mineralization spends 2 grams of 1 ~ / litre. Desert area. The common groundwater type in Chinese desert has: ① dune dives. Its dive water level is less than 1 ~ commonly 10 meters differ, follow the height of dune and become deep, if cloth of Inner Mongolia library is neat desert, the aquifer in dune by pink fine arenaceous composition, ply by dune brim 1 ~ is added 2 meters to interior thick to 10 ~ 20 meters, drilling unit emerges water quantity is less than 1 stere / when · rice, water quality is good. In the flat between grave, water level is buried can amount to 10 ~ greatly 15 meters, water volume is minor. In desert of wool black white, dune aquifer with in fine sand is given priority to, water level is buried deep 1 ~ 3 meters, suffer seasonal effect bigger, as strong as what finish hot season, lake is laminose have close hydraulic connection, perhaps form unified aquifer, water quantity is less than 10 stere / when · rice, water quality is good. ② dune unloads water of volt layer hole. Dune fresh water is removed in desert area outside, because bury of desert brim region has Gu Chong to accumulate Campagna of lake of Campagna, Gu He to wait, reason often has deposit of larger the Quaternary Period of early, metaphase below dune, its origin or before be hill strong, diluvium to the basin inside outspread, or to arrive deep the river valley accumulation of desert hinterland and dune cover the strong, lake below laminose, often have among them weak bear press moisture cloth, if Mao Wusu is desert northeast brim, it is on the Jurassic sandiness mudstone with poorer water penetration, enclothe have thicker strong, lake laminose, form a spring group, spring discharge amounts to tens of stere hourly, water quality is good. This is explicit the Guerbantonggute of basin of accurate Ga Er is desert, dune falls to distributing generally those who have tall head is weak bear press water, in Badan Jilin and black orchid cloth are mixed desert, also have similar case.
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